Day 1 :
RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Time : 09:30-10:10
Manfred Martin is Professor and Head of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of RWTH Aachen University, Germany. At Seoul National University, Korea he was WCU Professor and is now Adjunct Professor. He has more than 30 years of experience in education and research of physical chemistry of solids as well as service at department, faculty and university level. His current research focusses on materials for energy conversion, resistive switching, solid-state reactions, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and computer simulations as well. Professor Manfred Martin has published >200 scientific papers in international, refereed journals. He received the Carl-Wagner Award and has been elected as member of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He has supervised more than 50 Ph.D. students and more than 20 postdoctoral fellows.
Interest in materials exhibiting oxygen ion conduction has increased owing to their great importance for energy conversion in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) and Rechargeable Oxide Batteries (ROB). Ceria-based oxides are regarded as key oxide materials because rare earth-doped ceria shows high oxygen ion conductivity even at intermediate temperatures. Using Density-Functional Theory (DFT), we have investigated defect formation and migration energies as well. Using Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, we then investigated the oxygen ion conductivity. We show that all interactions between the defects, namely vacancy-dopant attraction, dopant-dopant repulsion and vacancy-vacancy repulsion contribute to the so-called conductivity maximum of the ionic conductivity. Solid oxide electrolyser cells based on yttria-doped zirconia as electrolyte were operated for 6100 h and 9000 h, respectively. They were analyzed concerning degradation by various electron microscopy as well as micro-analytical techniques. We found several degradation phenomena such as formation of nano-sized pores at grain boundaries, formation of SrZrO3 at the interface electrolyte/anode and agglomeration of nickel particles in the cathode. The origin of these degradation phenomena is discussed in terms of the mass transport processes in the electrolyte caused by the two applied driving forces, namely the electrical potential and the oxygen potential gradient. Finally the new concept of Rechargeable Oxide Batteries (ROB) will be discussed.
1. Grope B, Zacherle T, Nakajama M, Martin M (2012) Oxygen ion conductivity of doped ceria: a Kinetic Monte Carlo study. Solid State Ionics 225:476-483.
2. Grieshammer S, Grope B, Koettgen J, Martin M (2014) A combined DFT + U and Monte Carlo study on rare earth doped ceria, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16:9974-9986.
3. The D, Grieshammer S, Schroeder M, Martin M, Al Daroukh M, Tietz F, Schefold J, Brisse A (2015) Microstructural comparison of solid oxide electrolyser cells operated for 6100 h and 9000 h. Journal of Power Sources 27: 901-911.
4. Grieshammer S, Nakayama M, Martin M (2016) Association of defects in doped non-stoichiometric ceria from first principles. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18:3804-3811.
5. Koettgen J, Zacherle T, Grieshammer S, Martin M (2017) Ab initio calculation of the attempt frequency of oxygen diffusion in pure and samarium doped ceria, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. DOI: 10.1039/c6cp04802a
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Keynote: Semiconductor-ionic materials for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyte-layer free fuel cells
Time : 10:10-10:50
Muhammad Afzal completed his MSc in Applied Physics at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in 2013 and is pursuing PhD in Energy Technology at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden since June, 2014. After MSc at KTH University, he was appointed as Research Engineer and Project Manager at KTH for EC FP7 TriSOFC, STEM and Swedish Research Council (VR) projects. Currently, he is an emerging well known scientist in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Electrolyte-layer Free Fuel Cell (EFFC) and Manager for Advanced Fuel Cell and Solar Cell Group at KTH. His current work focuses on Semiconductor-ionic materials (three in one) for the development of EFFC technology working at low temperatures (300-600°C). He is an International Referee for International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, J. Phys Chem B & C, J. Scanning, Electrochimica Acta, and Advanced Energy Materials. He is Guest Editor of International Journal of Scanning. He has published more than 20 papers in refereed international journals.
In this work, demonstration of new advanced materials for advanced solid oxide fuel cells (ASOFCs) is reported to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Nanocomposite semiconductor-ionic ceramic materials are prepared by solid state route through ball milling process and investigated as the catalytic electrode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) as type I device and core material for electrolyte-layer free fuel cell technology as type II device illustrated in Fig. 1. Synthesized perovskite oxides have exhibited great electrical conductivities, especially the Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ prepared by co-precipitation method has shown a maximum conductivity up to 313 S/cm in air at 550°C measured by DC 4 probe technique. Similarly, Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05Li (NCAL) oxide has shown balance electrical and ionic conductivity which is very useful for fuel cell performance. Additional advantages of BSCF and NCAL with both ionic and electronic conductivities are their cost effectiveness and low working temperature below 600°C. XRD analysis on the powdered form of BSCF sample exhibited the phase structure as perovskite oxide. Microstructure studies of the samples have revealed homogeneous structure and morphology of the nanoparticles using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared materials including semiconductor-ionic and perovskite materials have shown very good mechanical strength and stability proving their importance in advanced fuel cell technology using spark plasma sintering technique. Power densities for new energy conversion technology using our synthesized materials are measured between 600-1000 mWcm-2.
Figure 1: Schematic for SOFC (Type I) and EFFC (Type II).
1. Bin Zhu*, Peter Lund, Rizwan Raza, Ying Ma, Liangdong Fan, Muhammad Afzal et al, Schottky junction effect on high performance fuel cells based on nanocomposite materials, accepted by Adv. Energy Mater. 1401895 (2015) 1-6
2. Huiqing Hu, Qizhao Lin, Zhigang Zhu, Xiangrong Liu, Muhammad Afzal, Yunjuan He, Bin Zhu, Effects of Composition on the Electrochemical Property and Cell Performance of Single Layer Fuel Cell, J. Power Sources 275 (2015) 476-482
3. Huiqing Hu, Qizhao Lin, Afzal Muhammad, Bin Zhu, Electrochemical study of lithiated transition metal oxide composite for single layer fuel cell, J. Power Sources 286 (2015) 388-393
4. Muhammad Afzal, Rizwan Raza, Shangfeng Du, Raquel Bohn Lima, Bin Zhu, Synthesis of Ba0.3Ca0.7Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ composite material as novel catalytic cathode for ceria-carbonate electrolyte fuel cells, Electrochimica Acta, Volume 178, 1 October 2015, Pages 385-391
5. Bin Zhu, Yizhong Huang, Liangdong Fan, Ying Ma, Baoyuan Wang, Chen Xia, Muhammad Afzal, Bowei Zhang, Wenjing Dong, Hao Wang, Peter D. Lund, Novel fuel cell with nanocomposite functional layer designed by perovskite solar cell principle, Nano Energy, Volume 19, January 2016, Pages 156-164
6. Yunjuan He, Liangdong Fan, Muhammad Afzal, Manish Singh, Wei Zhang, Yufeng Zhao, Junjiao Li, Bin Zhu, Cobalt oxides coated commercial Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ as high performance cathode for low-temperature SOFCs, Electrochimica Acta, Volume 191, 10 February 2016, Pages 223-229
7. Wenjing Dong, Azra Yaqub, Naveed K. Janjua, Rizwan Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Bin Zhu, All in One Multifunctional Perovskite Material for Next Generation SOFC, Electrochimica Acta, Volume 193, 1 March 2016, Pages 225-230
8. Chen Xia, Baoyuan Wang, Ying Ma, Yixiao Cai, Muhammad Afzal, Yanyan Liu, Yunjuan He, Wei Zhang, Wenjing Dong, Junjiao Li, Bin Zhu, Industrial-grade rare-earth and perovskite oxide for high-performance electrolyte layer-free fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 307, 1 March 2016, Pages 270-279
9. Bin Zhu, Liangdong Fan, Hui Deng, Yunjuan He, Muhammad Afzal, Wenjing Dong, AZRA YAQUB, Naveed K. Janjua, LiNiFe-based layered structure oxide and composite for advanced single layer fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 316, 1 June 2016, Pages 37-43
10. Muhammad Afzal, Chen Xia, Bin Zhu, Lanthanum-doped Calcium Manganite (La0.1Ca0.9MnO3) Cathode for Advanced Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 3, Issue 8, 2016, Pages 2698-2706
11. Muhammad Afzal, Mohsin Saleemi, Baoyuan Wang, Chen Xia, Yunjuan He, Jeevan Jayasuriya, Bin Zhu, Fabrication of novel electrolyte-layer free fuel cell with semi-ionic conductor (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ- Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) and Schottky barrier, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 328, 1 October 2016, Pages 136-142
12. Baoyuan Wang, Yixiao Cai, Chen Xia, Yanyan Liu, Afzal Muhammad, Hao Wang, Bin Zhu, CoFeZrAl-oxide based composite for advanced solid oxide fuel cells, Electrochemistry Communications, Volume 73, December 2016, Pages 15-19
13. Baoyuan Wang, Yixiao Cai, Wenjing Dong, Chen Xia, Wei Zhang, Yanyan Liu, Muhammad Afzal, Hao Wang, Bin Zhu, Photovoltaic properties of LixCo3-xO4/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells with high open-circuit voltage, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 157, December 2016, Pages 126-133
14. Yuzheng Lua†, Muhammad Afzalb†(equal first author), Bin Zhu*b,c, Baoyuan Wangb,c, Jun Wang*a and Chen Xiab, Nanotechnology Based Green Energy Conversion Devices, Recent Patents on Nanotechnology, 2017, 11, 000-000 (accepted)
15. Chen Xia, Muhammad Afzal, Baoyuan Wang, Aslan Soltaninazarlou, Wei Zhang, Yixiao Cai, Bin Zhu. Mixed-conductive membrane composed of natural hematite and Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05LiO2-δ for electrolyte layer-free fuel cell. Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, 8(2), 114-121.
16. Chen Xia, Baoyuan Wang, Yixiao Cai, Wei Zhang, Muhammad Afzal, Bin Zhu. Electrochemical properties of LaCePr-oxide/K2WO4 composite electrolyte for low-temperature SOFCs. Electrochemistry Communications, 2016, DOI:10.1016/j.elecom.2016.12.013.
17. Chen Xia, Yixiao Cai, Baoyuan Wang, Muhammad Afzal, Wei Zhang, Aslan Soltaninazarlou, Bin Zhu. Strategy Towards Cost-Effective Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Mixed-conductive Membrane Comprised of Natural Minerals and Perovskite Oxide. Journal of Power Sources, 2017, accepted.
18. Yanyan Liu, Wei Zhang, Baoyuan Wang, Muhammad Afzal, Chen Xia, Bin Zhu, Industrial Grade LaCe1.85Pr0.03Nd0.06Ox/Na2CO3 Nanocomposite for Novel Low-Temperature Semiconductor-ionic Membrane Fuel Cell. Advanced Materials Letters, 2016, DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2016.1431 (accepted)
Kyoto University, Japan
Time : 11:10-12:10
Katsutoshi Ono received B. Eng. Degree from Kyoto University, Japan, in 1961, degree of Dr. Sci. from Faculté des Sciences, Université de Paris in 1967. He was researcher at Ecole des Mines de Paris, 1965-1967, Professor of Materials Science, Kyoto University, 1982-1997, Energy Science & Technology, 1997-2001. He is Currently Professor Emeritus.
Concept of “three zeros” power generation system. Zero energy input, Zero matter input, Zero emission.
2. How to achieve” three zeros” power generation system
Hydrogen redox electric power generation, Lithium redox electric power generation.
3. Electrostatic-induction water electrolysis (ESIWE)
Principle, Laboratory experiment details, Direct measurements of electrical power requirements, Nature of the internal energy
4. Concepts of industrial applications of the three zeros power generation systems
All the constructions of the three zeros power generation systems are assumed to utilize the commercially existing bipolar
water electrolyzers, fuel cells, fuel cell stacks and lithium-ion battery modules, currently operated in industry.
High power application for central station power generation: Hydrogen redox electric power generation system(HREG).,
Combined energy cycle of solar battery, ESI bipolar water electrolyzer and fuel cell.
Low power application for specifi c propulsion systems:
On-board hydrogen redox power generators for infi nite cruising range electric vehicles (Abstract of the Conference). Onboard
lithium redox charge—discharge reciprocating power generator for infi nite cruising range electric vehicles.
5. Conclusive remarks
Th ermodynamic cycle of the three zeros power generation system. Direct electrostatic-to-chemical energy conversion Th ree
zeros power generators are not related to any perpetual motion machine, it works within the laws of thermodynamics through
internal energy creation.
1. Ono K: (2015) Energetically self-sustaining electric power generation system based on the combined cycle of electrostatic induction hydrogen electrolyzer and fuel cell IEEJ, Trans. on Fundamentals and Materials, Vol.135 No.1 pp. 22-33.
2. Ono K: (2016) Hydrogen redox electric power and hydrogen energy generators, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.41 PP.10284-102913.
3. Ono K: (2016) “Hydrogen redox electric power and hydrogen energy generators”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.41 P.10284-10291
4. Barbir F, PEM fuel cells, Theory and Prracice, Elsevier, Amsterdam P.268..
5. Annual Report, National Resources and Energies 1999/2000, The Agency for Resources and Energies, Japan.
6. O’ Hayre R, Cha S.W, Collela W and Prinz F.B., (2006) Fuel cell, Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons INC.